Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research 2023-09-15T11:37:18-04:00 Prof. Mahmoud Rushdi Open Journal Systems <p class="rvps3" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: kashida; text-kashida: 0%; background: white; margin: 12.0pt 0in 12.0pt 0in;"><strong><span style="font-family: 'Georgia','serif'; color: #505050;">Focus and Scope </span></strong></p> <p class="rvps3" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: kashida; text-kashida: 0%; background: white; margin: 12.0pt 0in 12.0pt 0in;"><span style="font-family: 'Georgia','serif'; color: #505050;"><strong>Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research</strong> is an international journal that publishes researches in all matters relevant to the veterinary profession. The mission of the Journal is to provide students, veterinarians and researchers with the current advanced researches in different veterinary disciplines. The key objective of the Journal is to promote the art and science of veterinary medicine and the betterment of animal health and production.</span></p> <p class="rvps3" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: kashida; text-kashida: 0%; background: white; margin: 12.0pt 0in 12.0pt 0in;"><span style="font-family: 'Georgia','serif'; color: #505050;">Articles will be peer-reviewed, published online as a full text, and under the Open Access publishing model.</span></p> <p class="rvps3" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: kashida; text-kashida: 0%; background: white; margin: 12.0pt 0in 12.0pt 0in;"><span style="font-family: 'Georgia','serif'; color: #505050;">ISSN (Print): 2090-6269</span></p> <p class="rvps3" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: kashida; text-kashida: 0%; background: white; margin: 12.0pt 0in 12.0pt 0in;"><span style="font-family: 'Georgia','serif'; color: #505050;">ISSN (Online): 2090-6277</span> </p> <p class="rvps3" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: kashida; text-kashida: 0%; background: white; margin: 12.0pt 0in 12.0pt 0in;"> </p> Isolation and Identification of Food Poisoning Bacteria from some Dairy Farms in El-Menoufia Governorate using VITEK 2. 2023-09-15T11:37:18-04:00 Wageh Darwish Shaimaa M. Nada Shaimaa S. Elnahriry Ahmed A. Sultan Mohamed H. Gaffer <p>Because milk is rich in nutrients, it creates an environment conducive to the growth of bacteria that could be harmful to consumers. Therefore, assessing of its bacteriological quality and the resistance of these pathogens to several antibiotic groups is very important. VITEK 2 compact detected <em>E. coli</em>, <em>Salmonellae</em> <em>spp</em>., <em>S</em>. <em>aureus</em> and <em>B</em>. <em>cereus</em> in the examined samples while it failed to detect <em>Listeria</em> <em>spp</em>. The serological identification of <em>E. coli</em> showed the presence of O<sub>44</sub>: H<sub>18</sub>, O<sub>127</sub>: H<sub>6</sub>, O<sub>159</sub>, O<sub>15</sub>: H<sub>2</sub>, and O<sub>91</sub>: H<sub>21</sub>. Also, Salmonella strains as <em>Sal</em>. <em>enteritidis</em> (25%), <em>Sal</em>. <em>infantis</em> (12.5%), <em>Sal</em>. <em>kentucky</em> (12.5%), <em>Sal</em>. <em>montevideo</em> (6.25%), <em>Sal</em>. <em>shangani</em> (12.5%), <em>Sal</em>. <em>tsevie</em> (12.5%). <em>Sal</em>. <em>typhimurium</em> (18.75%).&nbsp; Furthermore, the entero-toxigenic strains of <em>S</em>. <em>aureus</em> were 31.25% of the identified strains; the percentage of entero-toxigenic strains that secrete A, A&amp;C and D enterotoxin were 60%, 20% and (20%); respectively. Ampicillin, amoxicillin / clavulanic acid, cefpodoxime, cefovecin, ceftiofur, and trimethoprim / sulfamethoxazole were all ineffective against the isolated <em>E. coli</em> strains. Intermediate sensitive to cefalothin while they were sensitive to cefalexin, imipenem, amikacin, gentamicin, neomycin, enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin, pradofloxacin, doxycycycline, tetracycline, nitrofurantoin and chloramphenicol. Additionally, the isolated <em>S. aureus</em> exhibited resistance to tetracycline, benzylpenicillin, oxacillin, gentamycin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin also; it showed intermediate resistance to rifampicin. The identified <em>S. aureus</em> strains were also susceptible to linezolid, nitrofurantoin, vancomycin, tigecycline, and trimethoprim / sulfamethoxazole.</p> Copyright (c) Cytological, hormonal, and ovarian hemodynamic alteration during the normal oestrus and split heat cycles in bitches. 2023-09-15T11:25:45-04:00 Wageh Darwish Asmaa A. Abdallah Elshymaa A. Abdelnaby Said Amin Hossam R. El-Sherbiny Ibrahim A. Emam Fatma M. Ibrahim <p>Hormonal levels, particularly progesterone (P4), could be used to predict the day of luteinizing hormone (LH) surge, which is important not only for optimum ovulation but also for the detection of some abnormalities such as split heat. This study aimed to determine cytological, hormonal, and ovarian vascularity changes in normal cyclic and split heat bitches during proestrus and estrous phases. Pluriparous females (n=40) were categorized into two groups as follows: Group A (n=35; with a normal sequence of oestrus cycle) and Group B (n=5; split heat females with a short duration of proestrus). Doppler and hormonal assessments were performed daily from day 0 until day 15. Compared to Group B, both ovarian arteries (OA) Doppler indices decreased in Group A, with the most significant decline occurring between days 7 and 12. While peak velocity (PSV; cm/sec) was elevated in Group A compared to its value in Group B. In Group A, estradiol (E2) levels were higher (P 0.05) than in Group B, with the most significant increase observed between days 7-12. Group A showed an increase in nitric oxide (NO) from days 8 to 12 with no change in split heat bitches (P&lt;0.05). P4 levels were slightly elevated (P&lt;0.05) until they reached 3.5±0.09 and 8.25±0.22 ng/ml on days 10 and 15, respectively. Nevertheless, bitches showed split heat in Group B, P4 level was low. In Group A, IGF-1 levels were elevated in the proestrus phase until day 9 (155.32±5.26) and in the estrous phase until day 15 (175.56±3.66) compared to other groups. In Group B, the dominance of small intermediate cells and RBCs on all days remained unchanged on all days, in contrast to Group A, where cornified cells began to dominate on day 15. In conclusion, these data suggested that the evaluation of ovarian hemodynamics, in addition to hormonal and cytological assessments, could be critical parameters not only for the optimum ovulation prediction by progesterone assay related to LH but also for the detection of any abnormalities such as split heat or irregular estrous interval.</p> Copyright (c) Assessment of the potential impacts of garlic and/ or sage essential oils on quality enhancement of chilled Tilapia fish kofta 2023-09-15T11:08:22-04:00 Wageh Darwish Shymaa Yhieya Abdalla Ibrahim Shaimaa A. Abd-Elkader Walaa Mohamed Gomaa Abd El Fattah Walid Sobhy Arab Rasha Elsabagh <p>Fish and fish products are highly nutritional food that spoiled rapidly. Moreover consumer needs for natural preservatives instead of synthetic ones has increased. So aim of this study was to evaluate the natural preservation effects of sage (<em>Salvia officinalis</em>) and garlic (<em>Allium sativum</em>) essential oils on the shelf life, sensory attributes, chemical quality, and bacteriological quality of chilled fish balls (Kofta). It was found that shelf life and sensory attributes of those group treated with garlic 2%, sage2%, and mixtures (garlic: sage) has increased till 15<sup>th</sup> day of chilled storage compared to control group (untreated) that rejected at day 6<sup>th</sup> of storage. Examined EOs showed marked antioxidant efficacy that delayed chemical deterioration of tilapia fish kofta. Moreover, antibacterial impacts of EOS were detected by reducing total bacterial counts, <em>Psychrotrophic</em> count, <em>Pseudomonas</em> count, <em>Aeromonas</em> count, and <em>Staph</em>ylococcus count. It was concluded to that using EOs especially garlic and/or sage is a promising solution to overcome risk of chemical preservatives.</p> Copyright (c) Molecular Characterization of Avian Influenza Viruses (H5N2, H5N8, H5Nx and H9N2) Isolated from Chickens and Ducks in the South of Egypt 2020 - 2021 2023-09-14T05:58:45-04:00 Wageh Darwish Ahmed A. H. Ali Shimaa Mansour Sozun M. Hefeny Serageldeen Sultan <p>This study was conducted to investigate the epidemiological situation of avian influenza viruses (AIV) and the molecular identification of the different AIV subtypes circulating among chickens and duck farms in South Egypt. A total of 143 samples were collected from chicken and duck farms in Qena (n = 105) and Luxor (n=38) governorates during 2020. The organs and swabs were collected from diseased chickens and healthy ducks. The viruses were isolated in embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs) and their propagation was confirmed by hemagglutination test (AHT) and molecular detection of matrix gene by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). AIV subtypes were identified by RT-PCR and specific primers. Phylogenetic analysis of sequenced partial H5, N2, and N8 genes was performed. The results revealed that 15 AIVs were subtyped to 2 H5N2, 2 H5N8, 8 H5Nx, and 2 H9N2. While an isolate could not be subtyped by used primers. The H5-based evolutionary tree of 4 isolates revealed their categorization with the clade with close relation to H5N8 isolates from Egypt in 2021 and Kazakhstan in 2020. In conclusion, the occurrence of H5 and H9 viruses pays attention to a public health concern. Also, non-identified HxNx reveals a new AIV HA and NA subtype may be present among chickens.</p> Copyright (c) The relationship between poultry biosecurity assessments and Escherichia coli prevalence in poultry farms 2023-09-14T05:14:04-04:00 Wageh Darwish Mahmoud Samy Zaki Hanan A. Fahmy Mariam H.A. Khedr Mai, A. A. Goha Amira S. A. Attia <p>A crucial first step in preventing the introduction and spread of harmful microorganisms in poultry farms is biosecurity. The objectives of this investigation were to assess biosecurity measures and the prevalence of different <em>E. coli</em> species in commercial chicken farms in Sharkia province, Egypt. Sensitivity of <em>E. coli</em> strains was identified, and their susceptibility to antibiotics and disinfection was evaluated as well. Four farms provided 21 sample each, for a total of 84 samples. Three samples of each were collected for water, feed, litter, cloaca, wall, hand, and foot boots. All the studied farms obtained a "poor biosecurity" grade, meaning that their overall biosecurity score, which is comprised of 40% external and 36.54% internal biosecurity, was less than 50%. <em>Escherichia coli </em>species were found in 79.76% of the samples. It was isolated from water, feed, litter,&nbsp;cloaca, walls, hands, and foot boots with percentages of 91.6; 83.3; 91.6; 100; 58.3; 58.3 and 75%, respectively. Biosecurity level have significant negative correlations with the isolated <em>E. coil</em> species. <em>Escherichia coli</em> O119 was the most common serotype in litter and the cloaca, while <em>E. coli</em> O1 was the most prevalent serotype in walls and hands. Additionally, serotypes for <em>E. coli</em> O26, O159, O128 and O78 were included. According to the patterns of antibiotic sensitivity, amikacin, nitrofurantoin, gentamycin, and levofloxacin showed intermediate sensitivity, whereas <em>E. coli</em> 0119 bacteria were highly sensitive to ciprofloxacin. In the absence and presence of organic matter, Virocid, Cid 2000 and finally Virkon S were the most efficient against <em>E. coli</em> 0119. According to this study, there were differences in the investigated farms' biosecurity levels in relation to the occurrence of <em>Escherichia coli</em>. To reduce the introduction and persistence of <em>E. coli</em> in poultry farms, several biosecurity practices and management, including stringent cleaning and disinfection measures should be applied.</p> Copyright (c)