Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research <p class="rvps3" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: kashida; text-kashida: 0%; background: white; margin: 12.0pt 0in 12.0pt 0in;"><strong><span style="font-family: 'Georgia','serif'; color: #505050;">Focus and Scope&nbsp;</span></strong></p> <p class="rvps3" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: kashida; text-kashida: 0%; background: white; margin: 12.0pt 0in 12.0pt 0in;"><span style="font-family: 'Georgia','serif'; color: #505050;"><strong>Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research</strong>&nbsp;is an international journal that publishes researches in all matters relevant to the veterinary profession. The mission of the Journal is to provide students, veterinarians and researchers with the current advanced researches in different veterinary disciplines. The key objective of the Journal is to promote the art and science of veterinary medicine and the betterment of animal health and production.</span></p> <p class="rvps3" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: kashida; text-kashida: 0%; background: white; margin: 12.0pt 0in 12.0pt 0in;"><span style="font-family: 'Georgia','serif'; color: #505050;">Articles will be peer-reviewed, published online as a full text, and under the Open Access publishing model.</span></p> <p class="rvps3" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: kashida; text-kashida: 0%; background: white; margin: 12.0pt 0in 12.0pt 0in;"><span style="font-family: 'Georgia','serif'; color: #505050;">ISSN (Print): 2090-6269</span></p> <p class="rvps3" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: kashida; text-kashida: 0%; background: white; margin: 12.0pt 0in 12.0pt 0in;"><span style="font-family: 'Georgia','serif'; color: #505050;">ISSN (Online): 2090-6277</span>&nbsp;</p> Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research en-US Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research 2090-6269 <p>Users have the right to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of articles under the following conditions: Creative Commons&nbsp;Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International&nbsp;(CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).</p> <p dir="LTR">For more information:&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank"><img src="" alt="" width="88" height="31"></a></p> <div class="six columns omega"> <p><strong>Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs&nbsp;<br>CC BY-NC-ND</strong></p> <p><strong>This work is licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank">Creative Commons&nbsp;Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives&nbsp;4.0 International&nbsp;(CC BY-NC-ND&nbsp;4.0) license</a></strong></p> </div> Molecular identification and prevalence of ectoparasites worms in the gills of humpback grouper (Cromileptes altivelis) <p>Humpback grouper (<em>Cromileptes altivelis</em>) is one of the fisheries commodities in Indonesia that has a high value and the most exported commodity. The problem that often occurs in the procession of it, is the presence of parasitic attacks. The immune system of the infected fish by parasites will be decreased, which can then lead to secondary infection by bacteria. One of the ways to find out the parasites that infect the fish is by conducting a molecular identification test. This study aims to determine the type and prevalence rate of ectoparasites in the gills of Humpback grouper (<em>Cromileptes altivelis</em>) in floating net cages of Marine Aquaculture Center Lampung by a descriptive exploratory method. It was done by taking a 50 sample of fish with length in 20-35 cm using a purposive sampling method. The observed organ was fish gills, then molecular identification was carried out with real-time PCR and prevalence calculation. The results indicate that the gills of fish were infested by <em>Pseudoharbdosynochus</em> <em>epinepheli</em>. It was indicated by the appearance of a PCR band at 437 bp according to the marker. The prevalence of infested fish with ectoparasites in gills is 84%.</p> Hervina Benazir Ardiyanti Hervina Arief Rahman Rivaie Arief Sri Subekti Kusnoto Copyright (c) 11 2 Influence of Litter Size on Ultrasound Estimated Fetal Growth Curve, Maternal Steroids, Oxidative Stress and Serum Free RNA in Goats <p>This study aimed at evaluating the litter size influence on fetal growth (marked by biparietal diameter), steroid hormones (estradiol and progesterone), oxidative stress markers (Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and malondialdehyde(MDA)), total proteins, and serum free RNA. Goats (n=150) were blood sampled and assessed ultrasonographically during the mid-stage of pregnancy (6<sup>th</sup> to 14<sup>th</sup> week), and were classified into non-pregnant (n=64), single (n= 55) twine (n= 25) and triple (n= 6) pregnancy according to number of feti. The correlation coefficient of caprine fetal growth was R² = 0.9609, 0.9418, and, 0.928 in single, twine and triple feti, respectively. The area under curve of the fetal growth was 286.2, 282.1 and 263.4 for single, twine and triple caprine fetuses. The mean reduction rate in fetal growth compared to singleton pregnancy was 1.65±1.03 and 8.32±2.41 % in twine and triple feti, respectively. Estradiol significantly (P&lt; 0.05) decreased, while progesterone (P&lt; 0.01) and serum free RNA (P&lt; 0.001) increased in pregnant animals compared to non-pregnant ones. TAC and MDA increased in multiple pregnancy compared to non-pregnancy in association with the decrease of SOD and catalase activities. GPx activity and total proteins substantially decreased in triple pregnancy than non-pregnancy. Cell free RNA negatively correlated with estradiol, CAT, GPx, and total proteins, and positively correlated with P4, TAC and MDA. In conclusion, litter size greatly impacted fetal growth, maternal steroids and serum free RNA, and preload to oxidative stress mediated health disorders in pregnant goats</p> Mohamed M.M. kandiel Omnia El-sayed Copyright (c) 11 2 Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs with in vivo assessment using the garlic (Allium sativum) <p>A surveillance of zoonotic and other gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs along with assessing the efficacy of garlic-based treatment was conducted in Alexandria, Egypt. Therefore, forty stray dogs were examined and divided into two groups; group 1:&nbsp; Dogs were given a high dose of five garlic cloves/dog twice daily, group 2: Dogs received a proposed strategy of gradual lower doses based on weight; small weight dogs (13-14 kg) received ¼ clove twice/day, medium weight (16-18 kg) dogs received ½ cloves twice/day, larger dogs (19-20 kg) received ¾ clove twice/day, heavy weight (&gt; 20 kg) dogs received one clove twice/day.&nbsp;The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic infections was 90.0%. Identified parasites were&nbsp;<em>Isospora</em>&nbsp;(100%),<em>&nbsp;Toxocara canis</em>&nbsp;(27.78%) and both&nbsp;<em>Taenia</em>&nbsp;spp. and&nbsp;<em>Dipylidium caninum</em>&nbsp;(5.56% each). Single infection with at least one parasite was revealed in 20 dogs and co-infections with more than one parasitic species was found in 16 dogs. Sex, age and weight of dogs were non-significant. All female dogs were infected. Upon the treatment with garlic, the coprological examination revealed a significant reduction in helminth eggs among dogs of the group 1 (79.9%; t=-3.121,&nbsp;<em>P</em>=0.006*) rather than those of group 2, while the number of protozoal oocysts was significantly reduced in both groups (t=-4.211,&nbsp;<em>P</em>=0.001* and t=-6.872,&nbsp;<em>P</em>= 0.000*, respectively). The mean values of most of blood parameters measured were significantly positive like HCT, MCV, MCH, MCHC, blood platelets and neutrophils. Kidney function tests revealed that uric acid significantly increased post treatment in both groups (t=5.257,&nbsp;<em>P</em>=0.000* and t= 6.945<em>P</em>=0.000*, respectively), while creatinine level remained within the normal values. Moreover, liver enzymes, particularly AST and AP were significantly increased post treatment. There was a high risk of human zoonotic parasites transmission in the study area and the garlic is strongly recommended as an anthelmintic and a potential alternative to overcome rising resistance to conventional anthelmintics.</p> Eman Mohammed WAEL FELEFEL Mohamed Eldakroury Mohamed Elkamshishi Layla O Elmajdoub Mohamed EL- Beskawy Beskawy khaled eldakhly Copyright (c) 11 2 Microbiological , Cytological and Immunolgical investigation of Endometritis in Arabian mares <p>Endometritis is the principle cause of reduced reproductive efficiency in the mare. Bacteriological, mycological and cytological examinations are the backbone of diagnosis of endometritis in the mare. Interleukin-6, Prostaglandin E<sub>2</sub> and Prostaglandin F<sub>2</sub><sub>𝛼</sub> are pro-inflammatory cytokines and their determination in serum of mares is important to predict early stages of endometritis to prevent its detrimental effect on fertility of mares. Low volume lavage (LVL) fluid was microbiologically examined (bacteria and fungi) together with cytological smears from endometrial swabs . Microbial growth on culture of the LVL pellet revealed that diseased mares had Gram negative bacteria as <em>E.coli</em> (75%), <em>Klebsiella </em>spp. (40%), Gram positive bacteria as <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (60%) and <em>Staphylococcus epidermidis</em> (55%). For mycological results; there were 24 (24%) diseased mares showed positive results for yeast and mould growth colonies as 13 were positive for yeasts and 11 were positive for moulds. Microbial examination together with cytological results revealed that endometritis was diagnosed in 75 out of 100 mares. Serum evaluation of IL6, PGE<sub>2</sub> and PGF<sub>2</sub><sub>𝛼</sub> revealed their higher levels in diseased mares compared with control ones. In conclusion, microbiological examination of endometrial Low volume uterine lavage is of great importance to diagnose precisely the causative agent either bacteria or fungi. Microbiological together with cytological smears and clinical finding are crucial when evaluating mares. The IL6, PGE<sub>2</sub> and PGF<sub>2</sub><sub>𝛼</sub> determination in serum can detect early stages of endometritis to quickly treat those cases.</p> Mona Soliman Copyright (c) 11 2 The Pyometra in Queen - Case Report <p>A 7-year-old mixed breed cat was admitted to Harmoni Pet Care, Menanggal, Gayungan, Surabaya with sanguinopurulent vaginal discharge. The cat was clinically diagnosed with pyometra and successfully cured by ovario-hysterectomy</p> Tantri Dyah Whidi Palupi Triwahyu Suprayogi Ismudiono Ismudiono Erma Safitri Copyright (c) 11 2