Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research <p class="rvps3" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: kashida; text-kashida: 0%; background: white; margin: 12.0pt 0in 12.0pt 0in;"><strong><span style="font-family: 'Georgia','serif'; color: #505050;">Focus and Scope</span></strong></p> <p class="rvps3" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: kashida; text-kashida: 0%; background: white; margin: 12.0pt 0in 12.0pt 0in;"><span style="font-family: 'Georgia','serif'; color: #505050;"><strong>Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research</strong> is an international journal that publishes research in all matters relevant to the veterinary profession. The mission of the Journal is to provide students, veterinarians and researchers with the current advanced research in different veterinary disciplines. The key objective of the Journal is to promote the art and science of veterinary medicine and the betterment of animal health and production.</span></p> <p class="rvps3" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: kashida; text-kashida: 0%; background: white; margin: 12.0pt 0in 12.0pt 0in;"><span style="font-family: 'Georgia','serif'; color: #505050;">Articles will be peer-reviewed, published online as a full text, and under the Open Access publishing model.</span></p> <p class="rvps3" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: kashida; text-kashida: 0%; background: white; margin: 12.0pt 0in 12.0pt 0in;">Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research publishes articles (Original research, Short communications, Review article and Case report) four times yearly (quarterly), and has four issues (January, April, July and October) in its yearly volume. Special issues may be published in between the regular issues.</p> <p class="rvps3" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: kashida; text-kashida: 0%; background: white; margin: 12.0pt 0in 12.0pt 0in;"><span style="font-family: 'Georgia','serif'; color: #505050;">ISSN (Print): 2090-6269</span></p> <p class="rvps3" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: kashida; text-kashida: 0%; background: white; margin: 12.0pt 0in 12.0pt 0in;"><span style="font-family: 'Georgia','serif'; color: #505050;">ISSN (Online): 2090-6277</span></p> <p class="rvps3" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: kashida; text-kashida: 0%; background: white; margin: 12.0pt 0in 12.0pt 0in;">Publication Charge: Articles are published free of charge.</p> <p class="rvps3" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: kashida; text-kashida: 0%; background: white; margin: 12.0pt 0in 12.0pt 0in;">Donation: Click the link to send donation to advetres@instapay<br /><a href=""></a><br />Powered by InstaPay</p> en-US <p>Users have the right to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of articles under the following conditions: Creative Commons&nbsp;Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International&nbsp;(CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).</p> <p dir="LTR">For more information:&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank"><img src="" alt="" width="88" height="31"></a></p> <div class="six columns omega"> <p><strong>Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs&nbsp;<br>CC BY-NC-ND</strong></p> <p><strong>This work is licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank">Creative Commons&nbsp;Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives&nbsp;4.0 International&nbsp;(CC BY-NC-ND&nbsp;4.0) license</a></strong></p> </div> (Prof. Mahmoud Rushdi) (Mahmoud Rushdi Abd Ellah) Mon, 01 Jul 2024 16:18:01 +0000 OJS 60 Hepatoprotective, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory efficacy of Quercetin or Rosemary extract against metalaxyl toxicity -induced liver damage in rats: A role of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathways <p>Metalaxyl, a benzenoid fungicide, has hazardous effects on mammalian animals. Exposure to metalaxyl causes oxidative stress as well as clear toxicity. The possible protective impact of quercetin or rosemary extract against liver damage caused by the fungicide metalaxyl in rats were evaluated. Twenty-eight male albino rats split into four equal groups. G1 (control group); Rats were received distilled water. G2 (metalaxyl): Rats were administered oral dosages of metalaxyl (130 mg/kg b.wt) 1/10 LD<sub>50</sub> three times a week for six weeks. G3 (metalaxyl + quercetin): Rats were given 50 mg/kg b.wt/day of quercetin in addition to (130 mg/kg b.wt) of metalaxyl. G4 (metalaxyl + Rosemary extract): Rats were given (200 mg/kg b.wt/day) of Rosemary extract in addition to 130 mg/kg b.wt of metalaxyl. The findings showed that rats exposed to metalaxyl had markedly elevated levels of liver marker enzymes and clearly up-regulation of Caspase-3 gene expression. However, rats exposed to metalaxyl showed a considerable downregulation of the expression of the liver HO-1, Nrf2, and Bcl-2 genes. Conversely, Quercetin or Rosmary extract co-treatment with metalaxyl induce significant decreases in serum liver enzymes along with downregulation in caspase 3, while up-regulation of HO-1, Nrf2 and Bcl-2 gene expression in hepatocytes of treated rats. These results suggest that quercetin and rosemary extract may have a potential protective role as strong hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties, mitigate oxidative stress caused by metalaxyl toxicity induced -liver damage by inhibiting caspase 3 mediated initiation of HO-1, Nrf2 and Bcl-2 genes.</p> Alaa S.A. Hussein, Yakout A. El- Senosi, Mohamed k. Mahfouz, Mahmoud M. Arafa, Ibrahim Elmaghraby Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research Mon, 01 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Antibacterial effect of the probiotic candidate isolated from kishk sold in Upper Egypt <p>Kishk is a traditional dry fermented dairy product prepared from a mixture of salted sour butter milk or yoghurt with wheat grains. Goal was to evaluate the microbiological quality, together with isolation and identification of LAB from kishk and assessed their protective effects against <em>E. coli </em>and<em> Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> <em>in vitro</em> and <em>in vivo</em>. One hundred samples of kishk were randomly obtained from farmers’ houses and food stores in the Assuit province, Egypt. Total viable count and, total yeasts and molds were performed by plating the samples on selective media. Further, LAB were isolated on de Man Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) agar and identified by biochemical tests. The antagonistic effect of the obtained LAB was evaluated against two of foodborne patogens (<em>E. coli</em> and <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>) <em>in vitro</em> using well diffusion method and in vivo after inoculation in cow’s milk. The average count of total bacterial counts and, total yeasts and molds were 8.13 ± 0.09 and 2.92 ± 0.16 log<sub>10 </sub>CFU/g, respectively. On the basis of phenotypical examination, LAB were identified and classified into three groups of LAB namely <em>Lactobacillus</em>, <em>Leuconostoc</em> and <em>Lactococcus</em>. Notably, LAB had more inhibitory activity against against <em>E. coli</em> in comparison to <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro</em>. However, there was no changes in the mean count of the tested organisms versus control group after inoculation in milk. This study discovered that kishk contain LAB bacteria that have antagonistic properties on <em>E. coli</em> and <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>. Hence, kishk could be a useful candidate for the human health.</p> Yassmin A. Shaheer, Sahar M. Kamal Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research Mon, 01 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Quercetin or Rosmary extract mitigates Manganese chloride-induced Neurotoxicity through Regulation of DNA Methylation and Histone Acetylation and alleviation of apoptosis in rats <p>Manganese (Mn) is a necessary trace mineral, but imbalanced levels in the body can lead to neurotoxicity. The neurotoxicity of manganese chloride (MnCl2) is associated with dopaminergic neurodegeneration, oxidative damage and neuro-inflammation. This study was conducted to assess the neuroprotective effects of quercetin or rosemary extract on neurotoxicity induced by MnCl2 in rats. Twenty-eight male albino rats were separated into four identical groups.&nbsp; G1(normal control): Rats were provided with purified water. G2 (MnCl<sub>2</sub>): Rats were orally administered MnCl2 at a dose of 1/25 LD50 (59.36 mg/kg b.wt) five times a week for six consecutive weeks. G3 (MnCl<sub>2</sub>+ Quercetin): Rats were given MnCl2 (59.36 mg/kg b.wt) along with Quercetin (50 mg/kg b.wt/day).&nbsp;&nbsp; G4 (MnCl<sub>2</sub>+ Rosemary extract): Rats were given MnCl2 (59.36 mg/kg b.wt) along with Rosemary extract (200 mg/kg b.wt/day). Results indicated that a significant upregulation of HAT1, HDAC1, and Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) gene expression with Global DNA hyper-methylation were observed in brain of MnCl<sub>2</sub> exposed rats. Meanwhile, Quercetin or Rosmary extract co-treatment with MnCl<sub>2</sub> induce significant downregulation of HAT1,HDAC1 and PI3K&nbsp; expression with major Global DNA hypo-methylation in the brain of rats. Additionally, treating manganese-exposed rats with quercetin or Rosemary extract also resulted in the preservation of the brain's histological structure. This results suggest that quercetin and rosemary can modulate alterations in histone acetylation in rats brain cells when exposed to manganese through their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties.&nbsp;</p> Alaa S.A. Hussein, Yakout A. El- Senosi, Mohamed k. Mahfouz, Mahmoud M. Arafa, Ibrahim Elmaghraby Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research Mon, 01 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Sperm rheotaxis as a parameter for laboratory Evaluation of frozen semen in bull <p><strong> </strong>Sperm rheotaxis is a sperm guidance mechanism that helps to guide and select high-quality sperm cells within the female reproductive tract. Semen is usually evaluated using either the traditional subjective method of evaluation or computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA). These methods provide information about sperm concentration, viability and motility parameters and ignoring sperm ability to travel inside the female reproductive tract. Our goal was to detect the individual variations between different sires through evaluation of post thawed frozen semen using sperm rheotaxis. We studied sperm rheotaxis and sperm kinematics inside microfluidic platforms together with subjective semen analysis (motility, viability, and sperm morphology) in post-thawed bull frozen semen in different sires. The results showed that the positive rheotaxis (PR) was higher in the post-thawed frozen semen of some bulls (P &lt; 0.05) than in others. Our results also revealed that the bulls with the higher PR% have significantly higher straight-line velocity (VSL) and subjective analysis parameters (motility and viability) (P &lt; 0.05) than bull with the lower PR. Furthermore, PR was positively correlated with VSL (r = 0.67, P &lt; 0.0001) and with subjective motility and viability (r =0.57, P = 0.007 and r = 0.49; P= 0.02, respectively). Thus, we concluded that sperm rheotaxis should be used as a new parameter in evaluation of post-thawed frozen semen quality in bull.</p> Haitham A. Mofadel, Hassan A. Hussein, Ahmed M.R. Fath El-Bab, Taymour M. El‑Sherry Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research Mon, 01 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Pasteurella multocida in cattle and buffaloes <p><em>Pasteurella multocida</em> (<em>P. multocida</em>) infection is considered one of the highly contagious diseases causing pneumonia in bovine with devastating economic setbacks globally. Recently, inappropriate usage of antimicrobial in treatment and control makes <em>P. multocida</em> resistance to the most prescribed veterinary antibiotics. The current study aimed to detect <em>P. multocida</em> in apparently healthy and diseased (170) cattle and (174) buffalo in four Egyptian governorates, defined some of epidemiological aspect, phenotypic and genotypic detection of antimicrobial resistance of <em>P. multocida s</em>trains. The overall prevalence in examined cattle and buffalo was 21.2%. The highest infection was in young male (41.5%) in Cairo governorate (24.5%). The antimicrobial susceptibility test of <em>P. multocida</em> isolates showed high prevalence of multi-drug resistance to more than one antimicrobial group as high resistance was recorded against Penicillin-G, Ampicillin, oxytetracycline, streptomycin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim but sensitive to cefquinome. The antimicrobial resistant pattern was confirmed by detection of four antimicrobial resistance genes (<em>tet</em>H, <em>erm</em>X, <em>bla</em>ROB1 and <em>aph</em>A1) in four phenotypically drug resistance isolates. The four isolates revealed positive results for resistance genes by PCR assay except one isolate was negative for <em>erm</em>X gene. The result confirms the necessity of reliable use of antimicrobials to avoid the development drug resistance and decrease the economic losses in animal production.</p> Ahmed Radwan, Islam Zakria, Faysal Arnaout, Rania AboSakya, Abdelfattah Selim Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research Mon, 01 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Towards a healthier choice: Investigating no added nitrite beef sausage production using safe alternative approaches <p>Replacing of sodium nitrite from meat processing is a new promising advance in clean label meat products. The current article explored the positive effects of total replacement of sodium nitrite with a combined antimicrobial and antioxidant mixture comprised of 400 ppm nisin (N), 25 ppm Nano sized zinc oxide (Z), 1% chitosan (C) and 1% roselle extract (R) on proximate and fatty acid composition, cooking loss, color analysis and sensory profile of beef sausage. Four types of beef sausage were prepared as following: NT sausage samples as control positive group containing 120 ppm sodium nitrite, NCR samples (400 ppm N, 1% C and 1% R), ZCR (25 ppm Z, 1% C and 1% R) and NZCR samples containing (400 ppm N, 25 ppm Z, 1% C 5and 1% R). The outcomes of the study displayed that there was no significant difference (P &gt; 0.01) in proximate composition of control (NT) and reformulated (NCR, ZCR and NZCR) samples. Concerning fatty acid profiling, saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were the predominant portions in all sausage types and oleic acid was the prevalent one, moreover, reformulated sausages exhibited lower SFA and higher MUFA and PUFA improving fat quality of reformulated beef sausage. A significant difference in cooking loss percentage was observed in NZCR sausage samples compared to other sausages. Noteworthy, cooked reformulated sausages kept their red color after cooking and their a* values were close to those of NT. Sensory assessment (odor, taste and overall acceptance) of reformulated sausages were higher than NT especially for NZCR that recorded the highest scores. Overall, our findings established that combination of antimicrobials (nisin and Nano sized ZnO), antioxidant (chitosan) along with Roselle extract (for red color enhancement) could be potentially applied as a possible nitrite replacer to produce healthier product free from sodium nitrite.</p> Essraa Youssef, Hemmat M. Ibrahim, Mohamed A. Hassan, Hamdy A. Zahran, Ahmed M. Youssef, Rasha Elsabagh Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research Mon, 01 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Detection and control of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in meat products <p>Chemicals known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be found in foods that have been grilled or barbecued, especially meats. One hundred and twenty samples of meat products represented by roasted kofta, roasted meat, charcoal grilled kofta and charcoal grilled meat (20 of each) were collected randomly from different markets at Kalyobia governorate, Egypt. The collected samples were examined for determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). Natural oils as lauryl oil, garlic oil and lemon oil with concentration (0.5%-1% 1.5%) were used to reduce fat pyrolysis by minimizing the amount of meat drips. The recorded results revealed that mean values of PAH4 was 10.35±0.89, PAH8 was 14.53±1.17 and PAHs was 16.49±1.33, respectively in untreated samples of charcoal grilled meat. Meanwhile PAH4 residual concentrations in samples treated with lauryl oil of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% were 13.7±0.6, 10.3±0.4 and 7.2±0.3, and with reduction percentages of 26.4, 44.5 and 61.2 %, respectively. Samples treated with garlic oil of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% showed PAH4 residual concentrations ere 12.1±0.5, 8.9±0.4, 5.5±0.2, with reduction percentages of 34.9, 52.2 and 70.0%, respectively. However, samples treated with lemon oil in concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% revealed that PAH4 levels were10.3±0.5,6.8±0.4 and 3.9±0.2, with reduction percentages of 45.7, 65.6 and 79.1%, respectively. It could be concluded that charcoal-grilled meat treated with natural oils decreased the levels of PAH4 in the examined samples. As PAH4 raises the risk of caner.</p> Alaa K. Amin, Fatin S. Hassanin, Mohamed A. Hassan, Fahim A. Shaltout Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research Mon, 01 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Quality indicators of broiler chickens' meat under the influence of gadolinium and lanthanum orthovanadate nanoparticles <p>Nanotechnology is successfully used to ensure food quality, to enrich food with minerals, vitamins and antioxidants, and to improve the organoleptic properties of food. Nanoparticles of rare earth elements – gadolinium and lanthanum orthovanadates – have prospects for use in growing broiler chickens to improve meat quality, since their introduction in a therapeutic dose (0.2 mg/L of drinking water – on average, chickens received 0.09 (0.13-0.05) mg/kg body weight) for 10 days led to an increase in the mass fraction of protein and a decrease in the mass fraction of fat (gadolinium orthovanadate nanoparticles) and an increase in the mass fraction of dry matter during the administration period, along with an increase in the mass fraction of protein and ash (lanthanum orthovanadate nanoparticles and a mixture of gadolinium orthovanadate and lanthanum orthovanadate nanoparticles), which increases the energy value of meat.</p> Alla Masliuk, Valerii Ushkalov, Oleksandr Orobchenko, Olena Kurbatska, Roman Sachuk, Volodymyr Klochkov, Svitlana Yefimova Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research Mon, 01 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Supplementing broiler diets with black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) as a protein source: Performance, carcass traits, viscera organ, and economic perspectives <p>Black soldier fly (BSF) larva meal has the potential to become an alternative source of protein for broiler rations due to its high protein content. This study aimed to evaluate broiler chicken performance, carcass characteristics, viscera organs, and economic aspects when substituting poultry concentrate protein with different levels of BSF larva meal. A total of 200 Cobb broiler chicks were randomly put into four treatments and five replications, with ten birds per replicate then reared for 35 days. The treatment diets given in the finisher period consisted of R0 (a commercial finisher diet), R1 (R0+0% BSF larva meal), R2 (R0+7.5% BSF larva meal), and R3 (R0+15% BSF larva meal). The result showed that the treatment diet had a significant effect (P&lt;0.05) on BW, ADG, and FI during the finisher period, while FCR did not have a significant effect (P&gt;0.05). No significant differences in carcass characteristics and income over feed cost were observed among treatments. However, the inclusion of BSF larva meal (7.5% and 15%) significantly increased (P&lt;0.05) gizzard weight compared to the R0 treatment. The use of 15% BSF larva meal in the finisher diet is a viable alternative protein source for broiler chickens, positively impacting gizzard percentage while maintaining comparable carcass characteristics and feed conversion efficiency. Additionally, it offers cost-saving potential compared to non-BSF diets.</p> Idat Galih Permana, Dwi Margi Suci, Arief Sabdo Yuwono, Yasmin Firdaus, Siti Rahmah Mawarni, Annisa Rosmalia Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research Mon, 01 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of bile acid supplementation on growth performance, carcass trait, fat digestibility, and blood lipid profile of broiler: A meta-analysis <p>Bile acid (BA) is a feed additive that can increase fat digestibility in poultry. The objectives of this meta-analysis were to assess the effectiveness of supplementation with bile acid on growth performance, carcass trait, fat digestibility, and blood lipid profile of broiler by meta-analysis evidence. Peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in English were found using databases such as PubMed, and Scopus. The meta-analysis required information on moderators (inclusion level, and treatment duration), a sufficient description of randomization, performance data, and associated measures of variance such as standard deviation (SD) or standard error (SE). All analyses were carried out using the Open Meta-analyst for Ecology and Evolution (OpenMEE) program. Data from the 10 studies included in the meta-analysis were pooled and presented as standardized mean differences (SMDs) at a 95% confidence interval (CI) using a random-effects model. Results indicate that dietary BA supplementation decreases FCR (SMD = –0.50, 95% CI: –0.76 to -0.23, p&lt;0.001), and tends to decrease abdominal fat (SMD = SMD = -0.39; 95% CI = -0.78 to 0.01; p=0.055). Contrastingly, BA supplementation increases fat digestibility (SMD = 1.67; 95% CI 0.73 to 0.26; p&lt;0.001) and dressing carcass (0.44; 95% CI -0.08 to 0.8; p=0.016) compared with the controls The meta-analysis explains that bile acid is an ingredient that could be used as a feed additive in broiler.</p> Muhammad F. Hanif, Noor R.I. Hasibuan, Amir M. Mauludin, Moh. S. Anam, Ali Agus, Bambang Ariyadi Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research Mon, 01 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Artemisia extract on Argulus coregoni and Lernaea cyprinacea infestation in carp fish <p>Different concentrations of artemisia extract were experimentally tested to treat Lernaea and Argulus infestations in common carp (<em>Cyprinus carpio</em>) fish with different methods. A total number of 210 carps (50 ± 10 g) were collected from private farms at Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt, and divided into 7-groups in triplicate: <strong>G1</strong> negative-control (apparently healthy carps), <strong>G2</strong> positive-control (infested carps with Lernaea and Argulus), <strong>G3</strong>: infested carps treated with dipping in a NaCl solution (5g /L for 5 min. for 3 consecutive days), <strong>G4-G5</strong>: infested carps treated with dipping in a solution of artemisia extract with concentration 50% and 60% respectively, for 5 minutes, then fishes were accommodated at a recovery tank and inspected for 10 min., <strong>G6-G7</strong>: infested carps were placed in aquarium supplied with artemisia extract (3 mg/ L and 6mg/L respectively, for 15 consecutive days). The results revealed that artemisia extract had a noticeable positive effect on survival, recovery of infested carps and the parasitic elimination% which increased proportionally with increasing the concentration of the extract, whereas the best results were obtained at <strong>G5</strong>. Also, there were an improvement in serum biochemical parameters (increased total protein, albumin and globulin with reduced AST, ALT, creatinine and urea), which were proportionally improved with increasing both concentration and the duration of exposure to the extract, (especially at <strong>G7</strong>). Gross and histopathological examination and alterations of skin, gills, liver and intestine also revealed a noticeable improvement to the normal in the groups treated with artemisia extract in comparison with <strong>G2</strong> especially <strong>G6</strong> and <strong>G7</strong>. Consequently, application of artemisia extract is a safe and optimal method for treatment of Argulus and Lernaea parasitism in cultured carp.</p> Enas A. Khoris, Soad S. Bileh Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research Mon, 01 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Machine learning algorithms for clinical mastitis prediction in a dairy herd use automated milking system data <p>Bovine clinical Mastitis (CM) is the most important disease in the dairy industry affecting both animal welfare and farm profitability. Therefore, early and accurate detection of the disease is a valuable timely intervention. In this article, six different machine learning classification algorithms were compared to obtain a prediction model for early detection of the disease. These algorithms are Support Vector Machine, Logistic Regression, Gaussian Naïve Bayes, K-Nearest Neighbor, Classification and Regression Decision Tree, and Random Forest. The algorithms are applied to the milk production of Holstein Friesian cows milked by an automated milking system using the dairy records and disease events. This includes 1493 cows with clinical Mastitis and 2387 healthy cows. The six models were evaluated based on five performance metrics criteria: accuracy, precision, recall, F1-score, and area under the curve (AUC). The accuracy rate ranged from 62% to 74%. The AUC is used to choose the best model. The Decision Tree algorithm and Gaussian Naïve Bayes scored the highest AUC of 71%. However, the Decision Tree algorithm is more stable with respect to other metrics (73% for accuracy and 64% for Precision, Recall, and F1-score). Hence, it can be considered the best predictive CM model with moderate accuracy. Out of the 15 input features, days in milk, age of the animal, lactation order, 305 days mature herd equivalent, and average daily milk yield were the only important features shared in establishing the Decision Tree model.</p> Dina N. Faris, Ahmed M. Gad, Mahmoud S. El-Tarabany, Sherif I. Ramadan, Ghada G. Afifi , Eman A. Manaa Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research Mon, 01 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Making the most out of energy content in broiler diets using xylanase, emulsifier, and guanidinoacetic acid mixtures <p class="Keywords" style="text-align: justify; line-height: normal;"><span lang="EN-GB">This research endeavour examined several nutritional approaches aimed at optimising the energy content of the broiler diets using mixtures with distinct mechanisms of action in low metabolisable energy diet (LME). Within this context, the impact of various xylanase (Xyl), emulsifier (EM), and guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) mixtures supplemented to LME diets were investigated on the following parameters: growth performance, energy and protein efficiency ratios, oxidative biomarkers, gene expression, and intestinal morphology. Seven hundred one-day-old (Ross 308) male-broilers were assigned to five experimental treatments (28 birds/replicate). The positive control group (PC) fed as breed-recommendations. A dietary change was made to the PC, where the dietary energy content was reduced by 200 kcal/kg feed, served as negative control group (NC). The other experimental diets were as in NC group, fortified with either Xyl+EM, Xyl+GAA or Xyl+EM+GAA. The results demonstrated a negative impact on the NC group’s productivity and biometric parameters compared to the PC group (p &lt; 0.05). Combinations of Xyl+GAA or Xyl+EM+GAA were as effective as PC in term of growth performance (p &gt; 0.05), but they were more efficient in terms of energy efficiency ratio (p &lt; 0.05). In contrast to the PC group, The Xyl+EM group had lower protein efficiency ratio (p &lt;0.05). The oxidative biomarkers, gene expression, and intestinal morphology of the NC groups supplemented with various mixtures were better than those of the PC group (p &lt; 0.05). In conclusion, the overall benefits in the Xyl+EM+GAA group were notable. It is possible to compensate for LME (-200 kcal/kg feed) by using Xyl+EM+GAA mixture. </span></p> Shady Khalil, Hossam Abdellatif, Ahmed Al-Sagan, Tarek Melegy, Abdelbary Prince, Ramadan El-Banna Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research Mon, 01 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Molecular detection of some antibiotic resistance genes of Escherichia coli isolated from bovines subclinical mastitis <p>Antimicrobial drug resistance is considered an urgent major global public health threat facing humanity. With the rise in the prevalence and severity of both fatal and crippling illnesses, this crisis will have a catastrophic effect on human society. It doesn’t only affect public health but also causes serious problems in the dairy industry. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and detection of <em>Escherichia coli</em> that produces extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) isolated from bovine subclinical mastitis cases.<em> Escherichia coli</em> was detected in 26 out of the 100 subclinical mastitis cases. The antibiotic sensitivity revealed that 10 from 26 isolated <em>Escherichia coli </em>were multidrug resistant. The isolates were most frequently resistant to amoxicillin (AMX) at 53.85 %, ampicillin (AMP) at 46.1%, cefotaxime (CTX) at 42.3% followed by amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC) at 38.5 %. All the 26 Escherichia<em> coli </em>isolates were tested for Extended Spectrum b-lactamase by using the disc diffusion method, and the same 10 multidrug- resistant isolates were positive for Extended Spectrum b-Lactamases. All ten multidrug resistance and Extended Spectrum b-Lactamases <em>Escherichia coli </em>isolates were identified genetically by the PhoA gene and were found harboured b-Lactamases antibiotic resistance genes <em>bla</em>TEM 100%, <em>bla</em>CTXM 90%, <em>blaSHV</em> 80<em>%, and ampC 80% </em>respectively. The obtained results showed that phenotypic detection of 10 multidrug resistance and Extended Spectrum b-Lactamases isolates were agreed with genotypic molecular detection of b-Lactamases antibiotic resistance genes.</p> Ayman M. Koriem, Eman A.M. EL Nady Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research Mon, 01 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The role of nuclear factor kappa beta signaling in the therapeutic effect of tadalafil against dexamethasone-induced gastric ulcer in rats <p>Gastric ulceration is a common gastrointestinal ailment with serious consequences that can lead to serious illness or even death. This study aimed to examine the efficacy of tadalafil (TAD) and dexlansoprazole (DLP) in treating stomach ulcers caused by dexamethasone (DEX) in male albino Wister rats. Thirty male albino Wister rats were divided into 5 groups (6 rats each): control group received normal saline, positive control group received DEX 5 mg/kg/day intraperitoneal (i.p.) for 7 days, the third group received DLP 30 mg/kg/day orally after DEX, the fourth group received TAD 5 mg/kg/day orally after DEX, and the fifth group received DLP and TAD orally after DEX. Persistence and prevention of ulcers, pepsin activity, mucin content, and histopathological changes were evaluated after each trial. Reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide (NO), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured in gastric homogenates. Serum levels of prostaglandin E<sub>2</sub> (PGE<sub>2</sub>), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were also measured. Treatment with either TAD or DLP alone significantly reduced ulcer index (U.I.), pepsin activity, TNF-α, IL-10 and MDA with significant rise in mucin content, PGE<sub>2</sub>, NO, GSH, and improved the histological alteration compared to DEX group. When TAD and DLP were administered together, there was a more notable decrease in U.I., pepsin activity, gastric MDA, TNF-α, and IL-10 with concomitant more significant increase in mucin content, NO content, and PGE<sub>2</sub> production compared to the TAD or DLP groups alone. Compared to each medicine alone, TAD and DLP together have promising therapeutic potential in preventing stomach ulcers caused by DEX.</p> Mohamed M. Elbadr, Mahmoud S. Sabra, Doaa H. Ahmed, Khaled M.A. Hassanein, Ebtsam S. Abdel-lah Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research Mon, 01 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Dose-dependent effects of phytase supplementation in the diets of Hubbard Broiler Chicks on production performance, economic efficiency, physical meat quality, and intestinal histomorphometry <p>The addition of microbial phytase is crucial for lowering the reliance on inorganic forms of phosphorus and enhancing the absorption of various minerals. The present investigation sets out to ascertain the optimal outcomes of dose-dependent phytase supplementation on production performance, economic efficiency, physical meat quality, and intestinal histomorphometry in Hubbard broiler chickens. A total of 270-days-old Hubbard broilers were distributed randomly among six groups. The experimental setup consisted of: Group 1 (G1) served as the control and was provided with standard basal diets, while G2, G3, G4, G5, and G6 were supplemented with standard basal diets containing 50, 75, 100, 150, and 200gm/ton of phytase, respectively. Weekly recordings of productive performance were conducted throughout the experimental duration. At the end of the study, specimens of both intestine and meat were collected from every pen. The best outcomes regarding body weight, weight gain, and feed conversion ratio were noted for G5 and G6. The economic appraisal revealed that G6 had the lowest feed costs per kilogram of body weight and the highest revenue and economic efficiency. Intestinal morphological examination supported these findings, showed that phytase supplementation significantly improved villi length and crypt depth, with the greatest enhancement seen in groups G5 and G6. Water holding capacity and shear force exhibited notable increases in G5 and G6. In conclusion, incorporating a higher dosage of phytase (200gm/ton) in broiler diets has the potential to decrease overall feed costs per kilogram of body weight gain, enhance growth performance, economic efficiency, and intestinal histomorphometry, and have no adverse effects on meat quality.</p> Aya M. Mahmoud, Nasser Khedr, Ayman Tolba, Ebtihal M.M. Elleithy, Ahmed Medhat Hegazy Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research Mon, 01 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0000 ADAM2 localization and expression in the ductus deferens and male accessory glands of rutting Camels (Camelus dromedarius) <p>The testicles and epididymal ducts of several mammals, such as camels, have been shown to have ADAM2 (fertilin) protein. But nothing is known about the existence of this protein in the camel's ductus deferens and male accessory glands. The current study employed immunohistochemical (IHC) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) techniques to elucidate the distribution and expression of ADAM2 in the ductus deferens and male accessory glands in dromedary camels throughout the rutting season. Samples of tissue were collected from the ductus deferens. (initial, middle and ampullary parts), prostate (corpus and disseminated part) and bulbourethral gland from eight mature male camels. IHC result revealed that ADAM2 protein localized in all parts of the ductus deferens with a strong immunoreaction in the ampullary parts. A variety of immunoreactions were recognized in the different parts of the male accessory glands. qRT-PCR results showed that ADAM2 mRNA was expressed variably in all parts of the ductus deferens and male accessory glands; the ampullary part of the vas deferens displayed the highest levels of expression (P&lt;0.05). The current study concluded that ADAM2 is found in the ductus deferens and male accessory glands with greater expression in the ampulla and prostate glands where seminal fluids are secreted. Thus, it is believed that these organs aid in the sperm's creation of this protein before ejaculation in the female camel's genital organs.</p> Abdulkarem Al-Shabebi, Thnaian A. Al-Thnaian, Abdelhay M. Ali, Abdelhafeed Dalab, Abdelrahman M.A. Elseory Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research Mon, 01 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Detection of aflatoxins and novel simple regimes for their detoxification in milk and soft cheese <p>The purpose of this study was to detect AFs in milk and in the most popular cheese samples produced that were sold in New Valley governorate, Egypt. Trials were also carried out to find a simple, available way to counteract AFs in these products. Sixty samples of marketable milk and soft cheese (locally manufactured) were randomly collected from El-kharja markets, New Valley governorate, Egypt. Aflatoxin (AFs) was detected quantitatively in the samples by using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis. The positive results (tainted with AFs) indicated that 100% of the examined samples have level of Afs that exceed the allowable limit. Furthermore, locally manufactured soft cheese had higher AFs contamination than marketable milk. Additionally, the experimental trials to treat contaminated milk with microwave heating, Mish contaminated samples with lemon, and Kareish cheese with carbonated water revealed 9.4, 43.9, and 54.9% decline in Afs levels, respectively. It could be concluded that examined milk and milk products are frequently contaminated with AFs which exceed the allowable limits and every regimen that was employed to treat the contaminated specimen was helpful.</p> Rania M. Ewida, Mohammed A. Ali, Mayada S.A. Hussein, Doaa S.M. Abdel-Maguid Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research Mon, 01 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0000 L-arginine ameliorates acute ocular toxicity induced by cisplatin administration in rats: role of inducible nitric oxide synthase <p>Cisplatin (CP) is a chemotherapeutic agent employed as a therapy for different solid tumors. CP elicits many negative side effects including ocular toxicity. L-arginine able to increase the anti-inflammatory cytokine levels in the bloodstream. This study aimed to evaluate the possible protective impact of L-arginine against ocular toxicity of cisplatin through its anti-inflammatory action. Forty male rats were utilized in this experiment. The treatment protocol duration lasted for one week. The rats were divided randomly into four equal groups, as follows: the normal control group (G1) received a single intraperitoneal injection of normal saline, Cisplatin-administered group (G2) received single intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin in a dose (10 mg/kg body weight), Cisplatin + L-arginine-treated group (G3) received i.p. injection of cisplatin in a dose (10 mg/kg b.wt.) followed immediately by i.p. injection of L-arginine in a dose (10 mg/kg b.wt.), and L-arginine-treated group (G4) received intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg b.wt. L-arginine. The protective effect of L-arginine was assessed through histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in ocular tissues. Cisplatin-administered group revealed corneal neovascularization, stromal inflammatory infiltration, corneal epithelial hyperplasia, and endothelial degeneration. Sclera revealed vascular congestion and inflammatory infiltrates. There were congested blood vessels, apoptosis, and a decrease the ganglionic cells number in the retinal tissue. Ciliary body had epithelial necrosis, congestion, and hemorrhage. These pathological changes were attenuated to be mild in the cisplatin + L-arginine-treated group. The intensity of the immunohistochemical expression of iNOS appeared weak and significantly decreased in G3 compared to G2. The obtained data validate that Co-treatment of cisplatin with L-arginine cause a reduction in histopathological ocular damage through its anti-inflammatory effect.</p> Hager M. Khalil, Safwat A. Mohammed, Salah H. Afifi, Nashwa Hamad Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research Mon, 01 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of biosecurity practices applied on some dairy cattle farms in egypt and their impact on milk quality and production <p>Biosecurity is a set of practices applied to prevent the introduction and spread of diseases in animal farms. Mastitis is one of the most important diseases affecting dairy cows worldwide.This work aimed to evaluate the impact of biosecurity practices, environmental hygiene, and sanitation on milk quality, quantity, and prevalence of subclinical mastitis in some Egyptian dairy cattle farms. Along six months, Daily milk yield (DMY) was recorded and the total average milk production (TAMP) was calculated for six randomly selected cows of each of three farms (in Giza, Ismailia, and Alexandria Governorates, Egypt). A detailed questionnaire was also designed and filled out to detect the different biosecurity practices and hygienic levels. Milk, water, feed, and bedding samples were collected. In addition, swabs from workers' hands, cows' teats (before and after sanitation with Iodine 1% solution), equipment, and milking parlour surfaces were collected to assess the milk quality and environmental hygiene. Total bacterial count (TBC) and total coliform count (TCC) were determined. Subclinical mastitis (SCM) was detected using the White Side Test (WST). The obtained data revealed variable biosecurity practices in the investigated farms with different levels of environmental hygiene. A negative correlation was detected between the produced quantity and microbial quality of produced milk, besides the prevalence of SCM. Data reflected the negative impact of poor environmental hygiene on milk production and highlighted the role of following proper sanitary measures and biosecurity practices for improving milk production in dairy farms.</p> Samah E. Laban, Reem H. Elhady, Manal M. Zaki, Samer E. Mohamed, Shimaa A.E. Nasr, Karima M. Fahim, Aly M. Aly, Mohamed I. El Sabry, Amira S.A. Attia, Eman M. Ismail Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research Mon, 01 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of phytase and nonstarch polysaccharides-degrading enzymes on performance, bone mineralization, litter, and gene expression in broiler chickens fed nutritionally reduced diets <p>Effects of dietary non-starch polysaccharides-degrading enzymes (NSPase) and phytase complex on performance, carcass, bone minerals, litter, and gene expression (<em>IGF</em>, <em>IL-1β</em>, <em>IL-10</em>, <em>TLR</em>-4, <em>CPT1A)</em> were determined in broilers fed corn-soybean nutrient-reduced diets. Totally, 1200 Ross-308 one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned into 4 treatments, with 6 replicates of 50 birds each; (G1) a control nutrient-adequate diet without enzymes supplementation; (G2) received energy-reduced diet (-100 kcal/kg) with NSPase (100 g/ton Econase<sup>®</sup>) + phytase (100 g/ton Quantum Blue<sup>®</sup>; 5,000 FTU/g); (G3) received energy-reduced diet (-80 kcal/kg) with NSPase (250 g/ton Enziver<sup>®</sup>) + phytase (100 g/ton Phytonex<sup>®</sup>; 5,000 FTU/g); (G4) received as G3 diet with a 0.5% decrease in crude protein (CP). For all energy-reduced diets, the nutritional matrix of phytase with reductions of phosphorus (P) (0.15%), and calcium (Ca) (0.165%) was considered. Dietary NSPase and phytase supplementation to a low-energy diet significantly (<em>P&lt;0.05)</em> enhanced body weights, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and litter quality (lowered nitrogen, phosphorous, and calcium excretion in broiler manure), with constant bone mineralization. No significant effects (<em>P&gt;0.05)</em> on carcass or blood biochemistry. Energy and CP-reduced diet showed better feed intake, immune organ weights, and mineral bioavailability by decreasing Alkaline phosphatase activity. Moreover, upregulated gene expression of <em>IGF</em>-1 in muscles, inflammatory cytokines (<em>IL-1B</em> and <em>IL-10</em>), immune-related genes (<em>TLR</em>-4) in the liver, and (<em>CPT1A</em>) responsible for energy production. Conclusively, dietary NSPase with phytase compensated for up to 0.5% CP, 100 kcal ME/kg, and 0.15% and 0.165% units of Av.P and total Ca, with improving broiler performance and environmental&nbsp;impacts.</p> Basma M. Bawish, Elshaimaa Ismael, Samar H. Abdelfatah, Shaimaa Kamel, Khaled N.E. Fahmy Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research Tue, 02 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Cross-sectional study of seroprevalence and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in dromedary camels in two border areas of Egypt <p>Tissue protozoa play a significant role as a cause of economic losses in reproductive and productive aspects in camels beside the zoonotic importance. A Cross-sectional study was designed to estimate the seroprevalence and risk factors of <em>Toxoplasma gondii</em> and <em>Neospora caninum</em> in dromedary camels in Matrouh and Aswan border governorates of Egypt. One hundred and eighty-two serum samples from apparently healthy dromedary camels and tested serologically for neosporosis and toxoplasmosis. The prevalence of possible related risk factors was investigated from December 2020 to November 2021. The serological testing of 182 camel serum samples revealed a prevalence (15.93%, 29/182) for <em>Neospora caninum</em>, (58.24%, 106/182) for <em>Toxoplasma gondii </em>and (9.34%, 17/182) for both infections together. The total seroprevalence rate was (64.84%, 118/182). Camels in Matrouh governorate were at high risk (p &lt; 0.05) of infection with tissue protozoa 3.74 times more than camels in Aswan governorate. Maghrabi camels were found more significant (p &lt; 0.05) prevalent for <em>T. gondii</em> infection (62/78, 79.49%) by 5.28 times than Sudani camels, Otherwise, in Sudi camels, <em>N. caninum</em> is almost 2.70 times Maghrabi camels. The results showed that age and sex were mostly significant for <em>N. caninum</em> and <em>T. gondii</em>. This study found that, camels are a possible source of infection for the studied tissue protozoa, some of which are significant for public health. More research are needed to describe their true situation and epidemiology in dromedary camels.</p> Mona A. Mahmoud, Eman A. Noaman, Ahmed Zaghawa, Mohamed Nayel, Adel M. El-Kattan, Ibrahim S. Abd El-Hamid, Yumna Elsobk, Ahmed Elsify, Ali A. Arbaga, Walid Mousa, Akram Salama Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research Wed, 03 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of early infection by inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) virus on the efficacy of an infectious bronchitis (IB) live variant vaccine in commercial broiler chickens: a comprehensive study on clinical, histopathological, and virological parameters <p>Adenoviruses are commonly found in chickens, and can be isolated from both sick and apparently healthy birds. Inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) is an acute disease primarily caused by (Fowl adeno virus) FAdV strains from groups D and E, including FAdV-8a serotype. Acknowledged for its immunosuppressive effects, we undertook an investigation into the early infection dynamics of IBH and its consequential impact on a fundamental vaccine widely employed in the poultry industry. Our study precisely examined the interplay between early IBH infection and the efficacy of a specific (Infectious bronchitis) IB vaccine. In this study, a total of 150 broiler chicks were divided into five groups, each consistedof 30 chicks. Group I received one dose of the IB variant vaccine, Group II and III received two doses (the first at 1-day-old and the second at 14-day-old), Group IV (control +ve) and Group V (control -ve). Groups I, II and IV were infected with IBH at 7-day-old. The evaluation encompassed diverse parameters, including clinical manifestations, mortality rates, and histopathological assessments of the liver, trachea, and kidney. Additionally, viral shedding of the IB vaccinal strain was examined. Our findings focus the detrimental impact of early IBH infection on avian organs and IB vaccinal strain shedding. Pronounced necrotic changes were observed in the tissues, coupled with an elevated viral shedding of the variant strain. These results collectively imply an augmented risk of potential outbreaks, emphasizing the need for a nuanced approach in managing IBH in the context of vaccination strategies.</p> Shaimaa Farag, Ahmed E. Saad, Ebrahim M. Elboraey, Kamel A. Zayan, Ahmed M. Helal Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research Sat, 06 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Significant impact of physicochemical water parameters in tilapia aquaculture <p>Water quality is an important part of any aquaculture system. Water provides aquatic animals with oxygen, allows for waste removal, and is the conduit for their food. Similar to all other organisms, fish are heavily influenced and dependent on the characteristics of their environment. Non-optimum water physicochemical parameters as dissolved oxygen, pH, salinity, ammonia, temperature etc. can cause stress to the cultured fish and thus make them more susceptible to disease outbreaks. Nile tilapia is the most cultured fish in Egypt. While its sustainable production is hindered by many obstacles. One of them is the water quality, therefore the hygienic effects of the water parameters are important to be clear in culturing.</p> Noura F. Kelany, Hosnia S. Abdel-Mohsein, Saber Kotb, Abd El-Moez A. Ismail Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research Sat, 13 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Deciphering leptospirosis: Insights into an emerging global threat <p>Leptospirosis is caused by bacteria that are members of the Leptospira genus. This illness can occur in a variety of environments, although it is more prevalent in tropical regions where humidity and wetness greatly aid in its spread. Geographically broad, leptospirosis primarily affects tropical, temperate, and subtropical regions. Bacteria can enter the body through the vaginal system, mucosa, conjunctiva, and tiny abrasions. Hazardous germs are released into the urine when the bacteria settle in the complex kidney pathways. Leptospirosis symptoms are similar to those of other diseases, making diagnosis challenging. The majority of leptospirosis patients are resolved without problems. Laboratory techniques are used to research leptospirosis in humans and animals. Humans are classified as accidental hosts because they have had direct or indirect interaction with leptospirosis-infected animals. Leptospirosis infection can occur in at-risk groups who work in contaminated environments or animal shelters, such as abattoir and sewer workers, coal mines, plumbers, salver workers, agricultural workers, veterinarians, military personnel, abattoir employees, animals, meat handlers, and fishing industry workers. Antimicrobial therapy is one way to treat leptospirosis. Among the antibiotics are doxycycline, amoxicillin, ceftriaxone, ampicillin, penicillin, and erythromycin. Reducing the incidence of leptospirosis in domestic and wild animals can help manage the disease in people. Leptospirosis in wild animals is difficult to control, but in domesticated animals, vaccinations using inactivated whole cells or outer membrane preparations can effectively manage the disease.</p> Aswin Rafif Khairullah, Muhammad Khaliim Jati Kusala, Ima Fauziah, Abdul Hadi Furqoni, Ikhsan Suhendro, Mustofa Helmi Effendi, Ricadonna Raissa; Ikechukwu Benjamin Moses; Otto Sahat Martua Silaen, Leny Yuliatun, Sheila Marty Yanestria, Katty Hendriana Priscilia Riwu; Abdullah Hasib; Siti Rani Ayuti Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research Sat, 13 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0000 An unusual case of ectrodactyly in a free-living European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus, Linnaeus 1758) <p>This report aimed to present a case of ectrodactyly in a free-living adult female <em>Erinaceus europaeus</em>. At radiography and <em>post-mortem</em> dissection, the right hind limb developed 2 digits and aplasia of 3 digits. No other abnormality was found in this case. Various teratogens may be responsible for occurring skeletal anomalies. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first report of ectrodactyly in this species.</p> Andreia Garcês, Isabel Pires, Roberto Sargo, Filipe Silva Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research Wed, 10 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A case of sterility associated with SRY-negative 64, XY in Egyptian Arabian mare: cytogenetics, molecular and hormonal analyses <p>Inherited disorders are one of the reasons of infertility and economic losses for the equine industry. The detection rate of chromosomal abnormalities is rising due to the use of sex chromosome linked molecular markers. Here, a rare sterile five-year-old Arabian mare with XY male chromosomes is presented. The phenotype was corresponded to female with normal external genitalia. By transrectal ultrasound, there were hypoplastic ovaries and aplasia of uterine horns. Chromosome analysis was accomplished on blood samples using conventional, and G-banding techniques and confirmed by PCR and hormonal analysis. Although the karyotype (2n = 64, XY) revealed a typical male arrangement, it was SRY gene negative and amelogenin gene positive for X and Y chromosome. Hormonal analysis showed slight estrogenic activity of the ovary, but low progesterone and anti-mullerian hormones levels. In conclusion, this case of sex reversal mare (SRY-negative 64, XY) was recorded using cytogenetic, genetic, and hormonal analysis. Cytogenetics and molecular screening could be used as a fast approach for reproductive disorders evaluation in equine to save money, effort, and time of breeders.</p> Karima Gh.M. Mahmoud, Amal M. Mohamed, Samar S. Youssef, Ahmed S.A. Sosa, Sally Ibrahim, Mohamed M.M. Kandiel , Peter Safwat Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research Wed, 10 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0000