Molecular and Immunohistochemical Validation of Panax Ginseng Ameliorating Effects on The Pancreatic β-cell Activity and Its Implication on Some Metabolic Aspects in Alloxan- Induced Type 2 Diabetic Male Rats
Keywords:Panax ginseng, Male rats, Oxidative stress, Insulin receptors, Diabetes type 2, Immunohistochemistry, Gene expression
The modulatory effects of Panax ginseng on the pancreatic β-cell activity, glucose metabolism and its hepatoprotective action in alloxan induced - type 2 diabetic male rats were studied for 2 months. We divided the rats randomly into six equal groups; control; diabetic (T2DM); ginseng, ginseng post T2DM induction; ginseng pre T2DM induction and ginseng pre and post T2DM induction. The serum level of glucose, total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), triglycerides (TG), total protein, albumin, globulin, albumin- globulin ratio (A/G), total bilirubin, both direct and indirect bilirubins, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), cytochrome P450 (CYP450) and the activity of hepatic glucose -6- phosphatase (G6Pase) and also, the activity of the antioxidant markers [glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), in addition; the level of lipid peroxidation product; malondialdehyde (MDA)] in both the serum and the liver were measured. The histological structure of both the pancreas and the liver and the expressions of both insulin receptors (IR), adenosine monophosphate kinase (AMPK) and the percentage of the positive area of insulin secretion in the islets of Langerhans using immunohistochemistry technique were also estimated. The results revealed that the previously mentioned parameters were significantly improved after administration of Panax ginseng to diabetic rats. In conclusion panax ginseng administration could be ameliorate and protect the male rats against type 2 DM and could be able to decrease the intensity of damage caused in the pancreas after alloxan injection.
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